Today’s word is etmek (Ottoman: ایتمَك), which does mean “to do, make,” but is almost never encountered on its own. Instead, it serves an auxiliary function and is paired with nouns (often loanword nouns) to mean “to do [noun].” For example, kabul (from the Arabic root قبل qabila) means “agreement, acceptance” so kabul etmek means “to agree, to accept,” teşekkür (from the Arabic root شكر shakara) so teşekkür etmek means “to thank,” and af (from the Arabic root عفوʿafawa) means “pardon, forgiveness” so affetmek (notice that in the case of single syllable words they may be joined with etmek by doubling their last consonant) means “to forgive, pardon.” This works just as well for western loanwords, so verbs like telefon etmek and dans etmek mean exactly what you think they do.
“He thanked the woman.” = Kadını teşekkür etti.
Couple of notes here: kadın is “woman,” and the –ı ending puts it into accusative case as the direct object of the verb; also, we’re encountering definite past tense, which is formed by dropping the “-mAk” infinitive marker to get the stem, and then adding the past marker -DI (which given vowel harmony and voiced/voiceless consonant variations could be -dı, -di, -du, -dü, -tı, -ti, -tu, or -tü; a and ı harmonize with ı, e and i with i, o and u with u, and ö and ü with ü). Etmek is reduced to the stem et-, which takes the ending -ti because “et” ends in a voiceless consonant so the ending begins with one, and “i” is in vowel harmony with “e.” There is nothing else added to the past marker because the verb is third person singular. If the verb were plural and/or in another person an additional ending would be tacked on to signify it.
“I danced yesterday at the party” = Partide dün dans ettim.
Parti has the “-DA” (meaning -da, -de, ta, or te depending on vowel and consonant variations) particle attached to it, which means “in” or “at.” The “-im” added to the past tense verb signifies first person singular. Dün, I gather you figured out, means “yesterday.”
Etmek is thus similar to our Persian word of the day, kardan, in that its primary function is and auxiliary role making verbs out of nouns, but even though seeing kardan by itself is uncommon in Persian, I would argue in my limited experience that it’s still more common than finding etmek by itself. Turkish has another verb, yapmak, that means “to do, to make” in a standalone context, but that’s a word for another day (specifically, the day we cover words meaning, “to make”).