How are you?

How are you? = Nasılsın? (singular-familiar) or Nasılsınız? (plural-polite/formal), literally meaning “How are you?” since there is no present “to be” verb to insert.

Like Arabic,Turkish tends not to want to use its “to be” verb, olmak, in the present tense (is/are) form. Instead, in the third person it may append an ending, -dIr, which in general emphasizes the truth of the preceding sentence, on the final word of the sentence:

O adam bir öğretmendir. “That man is (just) a teacher.” (the use of bir, “one” or “a,” serves to emphasize that the subject is that thing and that thing only)

O adam öğretmendir. “That man is a teacher” or “That man is the teacher.”

What’s up? = Neler oluyor?, literally meaning “What things are becoming?” (neler is like the plural of our “what,” which is a form we don’t have in English)

What’s new? = Haber ne?, literally “What’s the news?” (haber comes from the Arabic khabar for “news,” perhaps via Persian, which also appropriated it).

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